The United States, which had ratified the original Kyoto agreement, withdrew from the protocol in 2001. The United States considered the agreement to be unfair because it called on industrialized countries to limit only emissions reductions, and felt that it would hurt the U.S. economy. The concept of sovereignty was disseminated throughout the world by European powers that had established colonies and spheres of influence on virtually all societies. Positivism reached its peak at the end of the 19th century and its influence began to weaken after the unprecedented bloodbath of the First World War, which inspired the creation of international organizations such as the League of Nations, founded in 1919, to ensure peace and security. International law has begun to integrate more natural concepts such as self-determination and human rights. The Second World War accelerated this development and led to the creation of the United Nations, whose Charter enshrined principles such as non-aggressiveness, non-interference and collective security. It was followed by a stronger international legal order, supported by institutions such as the International Court of Justice and the UN Security Council, as well as multilateral agreements such as the Genocide Convention. The Commission on International Law (ILC) was established in 1947 to contribute to the development, codification and strengthening of international law. The elements of the naturalist and positivist schools were synthesized mainly by the German philosopher Christian Wolff (1679-1754) and the Swiss jurist Emerich de Vattel (1714-67), both of whom sought an average approach to international law. In the 18th century, the positivist tradition gained wider acceptance, although the concept of natural rights continued to weigh in international politics, particularly through the republican revolutions of the United States and France. It was not until the 20th century that the natural world gained prominence in international law. This definition has led the jurisprudence to define a treaty as an international agreement that meets the following criteria: recently, proponents of radical reform of the judicial systems have called for a public policy to adopt non-reprehensible and non-violent methods of return to justice, and many of those who study the success of these methods, including a United Nations working group on restorative justice.
, have recently attempted to adopt public policies. redefine justice in the context of peace. Beginning in the late 2000s, an active peace theory was proposed that conceptually incorporates justice into a greater theory of peace. In 1625, Hugo Grotius argued that nations and people should be governed according to a universal principle based on morality and divine justice, while relations between political communities should be governed by the law of the peoples, the juice gentium, which had to be governed by the approval of the community of nations on the basis of the principle pacta sunt servanda , on the basis of compliance with commitments.