Jaspers had a particular interest in similarities in the circumstances and thought about his numbers. Similarities included a commitment to the search for the human sense and the rise of a new class of religious leaders and thinkers in China, India and the Mediterranean.  These early translation efforts took place in very specific moments in the intellectual history of Europe and China, and local intellectual and political conditions on both sides have much to do with the way Chinese philosophy was first received in Europe. The 1660s were an era of persistent instability in China: the Ming dynasty had been overthrown in Beijing in 1644 by the Manchu Qing dynasty, but the last renegade prince of Ming in mainland China did not capitulate until 1662, while Zheng Chenggong (better known in the West as Koxinga) kept until 1683 a loyalist kingdom of Ming in exile in Taiwan. Jesuits remained in contact with the Ming holdout leaders in the south and were initially slow to regain support in the capital of the new Qing regime. Their understanding of the most important Confucian texts of this period betrayed the influence of Ming loyalist intellectuals on the style of Gu Yuanwu (1613-1682), in his attachment to an original interpretation of the text and a rejection of the song`s neocolonian philosophies, and later, become Orthodox. Ming loyalists have tried to situate the collapse of the dynasty in relation to its abandonment of authentic Confucian virtues, and these prejudices are manifested for example in the 110-page introduction to the translation of Couplets, in which neo-colon philosophers like Zhu Xi (1130-1200), in the highly orthodox era, are presented as few better than Buddhists and Daoists , whose convictions were natural. Aye for Jesuit missionaries. This rejection of Neocolonian philosophy in the introduction corresponds strangely to the strong dependence of translation on the comments of Zhu Xi and the contemporary neo-Korean zhang Juzheng (1525-1582), guardian of Emperor Wanli of the Ming Dynasty. In the Europe of Louis XIV and Von Leibniz, questions about the role of the monarch in a benevolent absolutism, about the powers and limits of rationalism and about the value of the ancient tradition in a changing world have made the sudden emergence of Confucian thought in Europe a great intellectual event.
Finally, 1687 is also the year of Charles Perrault`s The Century of Louis the Great, one of the most important works of the modern party in the “Quarrel of Ancients and Modernity”. The ancient Chinese wisdom thus arrived in Europe when, for state and other reasons, the continent began to debate the enduring role of Western classics. The very first attempts to translate Confucian texts into Latin had unfortunate fates. The very first effort of its kind was probably that of the missionary Michele Ruggieri (1543-1607), who had begun to study the four books of Confucian thought, while he was a missionary in Guangdong Province in the 1580s and completed a translation of these books during his stay in Rome, between 1590 and 1592, to find support for the establishment of another mission in China; he was handicapped by the rapid death of four popes in recent years.